Addressing Health Inequality

Part 1: The role of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) 10 marks 

Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. Panaretto, K.S., Wenitong, M., Button, S., Ring, I.T. (2014). Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care. Medical Journal of Australia 200(11): p.649
In Part 1 you are required to discuss the role Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) play in reducing the health inequality experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Please review e-workbook 5 prior to approaching this part.

a) Equality vs Equity (5marks)

Achieving health equity means recognising that not everyone enjoys the same opportunities to lead a healthy life and taking steps to correct this; only then can health equality be achieved.
Discuss this statement and describe how Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services are an example of addressing health inequity to achieve health equality for First Nations people.

b) ACCHSs improving health and wellbeing (5marks)

“Aboriginal health means not just the physical wellbeing of an individual but refers to the social, emotional and cultural wellbeing of the whole Community in which each individual is able to achieve their full potential as a human being, thereby bringing about the total wellbeing of their Community. It is a whole-of life view and includes the cyclical concept of life-death-life.”
National Aboriginal Health Strategy Working Party. (1989, p.ix). A National Aboriginal Health Strategy. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services
Using examples of programs/services delivered by your local ACCHS*(see list below) discuss how the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services model of comprehensive primary health care reflects the above definition of health.

Part 2: The role of hospitals 10 marks (of a total of 40)

The NSQHS Standards provide a nationally consistent statement of the level of care consumers can expect from health service organisations regardless of where they live. The eight standards were developed to protect members of the public form harm and to enhance the quality of health services. Each standard consists of a set of action items. The second edition of the Standards, released in 2017, includes actions designed to ensure that healthcare is tailored to the unique needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
In this part of the assignment you are required to discuss how the implementation of the NSQHS standards in hospitals can contribute to reducing the health inequality experienced by First Nations Australians.
Of course, all NSQHS Standards should be applied to all patients but there are specific standards and actions that relate directly to improving the health of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander peoples

Choose two (2) specific actions from the table above. Describe strategies hospitals can use to implement these actions and discuss how implementation can improve patient outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

There are 5 marks available for each action you discuss, with the marks awarded as follows
• The description of strategies used to implement the action = 2.5marks
• The discussion of how implementation of the action will improve patient outcomes = 2.5 marks

Part 3: The role of individual nurses and midwives 10 marks (of a total of 40)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous peoples. Cultural safety is a proven way for nurses and midwives to contribute to better health outcomes and experiences for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia, (2018)
Fact Sheet: Code of conduct for nurses and Code of conduct for midwives
https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/FAQ/Fact-sheet-Code-of-conduct-for-nurses-and-Code-of-conduct-for-midwives.aspx
In Part 3 you are required to discuss how individual nurses and midwives can deliver culturally safe care and contribute to reducing the health inequality experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.
Best (Best & Fredericks, 2018) describes 5 principles of cultural safety as follows:
1. Reflect on your own practice
2. Seek to minimise power differentials
3. Engage in discourse with the client
4. Undertake the process of decolonisation
5. Ensure that you do not diminish, demean or disempower through your actions

Choose two (2) of these principles of cultural safety. Describe strategies individual nurses and midwives can use to incorporate these principles into the care they provide and discuss how these strategies can improve patient outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

There are 5 marks available for each principle you discuss, with the marks awarded as follows
• The description of strategies to incorporate the principle = 2.5marks
• The discussion of how implementation of the strategies will improve patient outcomes = 2.5 marks